Dietary Fiber

Dietary Fiber - NU Hospitals
  • Dietary Fiber

    Dietary fiber (DF) is the term given collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in the plants foods. It is not present in animal products such as mutton, chicken, fish, egg etc. The dietary fiber is the sum of the polysaccharides and lignin which are not digested by the endogenous secretion of the human Gastro intestinal tract.

    Depending on the solubility in water, dietary fiber is further divided into:

    1. Insoluble dietary fiber –IDF- (Non-Viscous, slowly fermentable)
    2. Soluble dietary fiber –SDF – (viscous and fermentable)

    The sum of these 2 fractions is also known as total dietary fiber (TDF). The dietary fiber has physical properties such as water holding capacity and viscosity, where as physiological properties

    include hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. All the dietary fibers, regardless of the type are readily fermented by micro flora of the small intestines.

    Insoluble Dietary Fiber:  It acts like a sponge, absorbs water in the intestine and swells. After this action it almost passes unchanged through the intestine. The bulk and soft texture of the fiber help prevent hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass. This stimulates peristalsis so increases the transit time in the colon. They are useful in reducing the incidence of appendicitis, constipation, diverticulosis and colon cancers

    Soluble dietary fiber: Dissolves in the water and forms a gel like texture in the intestine. SDF is effective in reducing the incidence of CHD, DM, and Obesity.

    SDF blunts the response of blood glucose. It delays the secretions of the GI tract to reduce digestion of food material and

    finally delaying the glucose absorption. It reduce the serum cholesterol by reducing the enterohepatic  recycling of the bile acids resulting in the increase use of cholesterol for bile synthesis, which in turn alters enzyme activities related to cholesterol synthesis.

  • How to increase fiber in the diet?

    The desirable fiber intake can be achieved by healthy people not by adding fiber concentrate in the diet, but by the consumption of fruits, vegetables legumes and whole grains cereals. These are excellent sources of fiber; also provide minerals, vitamins and phytochemcials.

    • Begin the day by eating whole grain cereals that contains at least 5 gm of fiber / serving. ½ cup of bran contains 10gm of fiber.
    • Take raw vegetables as much as possible.
    • Avoid peeling the skin of fruits (such as apples) and vegetables (such as cucumber) because much of the fiber is found in the skin.
    • Add peas, pulses, whole grains in soups and salads as they contain fiber 6-9gm / ½ cup.
    • Eat fresh or dried fruits as snacks.
    • To enhance the fiber intake in the diet, whole gram, whole wheat preparation should be included.
    • Try and include 4 serving of vegetables and 2 serving of seasonal fruits in daily diet ( ½ cup = 1 serving).
    • Do not sieve wheat and milled flour as it reduces the fiber content.
    • Pop-corn is rich source of fiber. It is safe snacks when prepared without oil.
    • Fluid works with fiber to aid digestion.

    Increase physical activity (exercise) stimulates GI peristalsis and contributes to the prevention of constipation

  • Adverse effects of high fiber diet

    If one eats large quantity of fruits and vegetables than required, they might tend to replace protein, carbohydrate, fats and mineral intake which are equally important for a healthy being.  Eating more than 50gm fiber per day can interfere with mineral absorption, which leads to problems such as anemia and osteoporosis.

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Cereals
    Bajra11.39.12.2
    Bread whole wheat86.41.6
    Jowar9.781.7
    Maize, dry11.9110.9
    Sorghum128.33.7
    Ragi11.59.91.6
    Rice(Brown)4.13.20.9
    Rice(White)0.60.50.2
    Wheat12.59.62.9
    Pulses and legumes
    Kabul channa1713.43.6
    Bengal gram, whole28.325.23.1
    Bengal gram, dal15.312.72.6
    Black gram, dhal11.77.64.1
    Black gram, whole20.315.44.9
    Green gram, dhal8.26.51.7
    Lentil, whole15.813.52.3
    Lentil, dal10.38.32
    Red gram, dal9.16.82.3
    Red gram, whole22.619.82.8
    Rajmah159.755.25
    Broad beans (lima)1917.81.2
    Soybean95.013.99
    Cow peas11.29.81.4

     

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Roots and tubers
    Beetroot3.52.60.9
    Carrot4.431.4
    Potato1.71.10.6
    Radish2.31.80.5
    Sweet Potato3.92.61.3
    Yam4.23.21
    Calocasia32.30.7
    Tapioca1.50.90.6

     

     

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Leafy vegetables
    Agathi (Agasee)8.46.32.1
    Amaranth43.10.9
    Ambat Chukka3.22.40.8
    cabbage2.820.8
    Colocasia , green6.65.11.5
    Coriander4.331.3
    Curry leaves16.313.42.9
    drumstick96.82.2
    Fenugreek4.73.21.5
    Gogu3.82.61.2
    Mayalu21.60.9
    Mint6.351.3
    Ponnaganni7.96.91
    Spinach2.51.80.7
    Tamarind leaves, tender10.69.41.2
    Broccoli2.61.70.9
    Brussels sprouts3.21.251.95
    Celery21.30.7

     

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Other vegetables
    Bitter gourd4.33.21.1
    Bottle gourd21.70.3
    Brinjal6.34.61.7
    Broad beans8.96.72.1
    cauliflower3.72.61.1
    Chocho Marrow/

    Knol Knol

    1.30.90.4
    Cluster beans5.74.21.5
    Cucumber2.620.6
    Keeera,Green1.10.80.3
    Drumstick5.84.81
    Giant Chillies2.220.2
    Kovai2.51.51
    Ladies Finger3.61.41.4
    Mangao, Raw31.41.6
    Onion Stalks5.13.71.4
    Peas, Green8.67.21.4
    Plantain, Green3.52.60.9
    Ridge Gourd1.91.40.5
    Snake Gourd2.11.60.5
    Tomato1.71.20.5
    Jalapeno raw2.51.51
    Potato with skin31.81.2
    Without skin2.81.21.6
    Radish1.91.40.5
    Mushroom10.80.2

     

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Nuts and Oilseeds
    Soya Bean2317.95.1
    Coconut fresh13.612.70.9
    Gingelly Seeds16.813.63.2
    Groundnut118.52.5
    Mustard13.610.23.4
    NUTS
    Almonds15.914.31.6
    Apricots3.71.72
    Cashew nuts3.02.80.2
    Dates8.06.61.4
    Flaxseeds25.511.713.8
    Walnuts54.30.7
    Pistachio nuts13.810.43.4
    Raisins4.03.01.0

     

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Condiments & Spices
    Aniseed4334.39.1
    Caraway seeds3933.15.7
    Cinnamom4944.63.9
    Onion2.51.70.8
    Cardamom2320.42.6
    Cloves3528.96.2
    Coriander4742.54.9
    Cumin Seeds3025.24.8
    Fenugreek4928.620
    Garlic5.12.62.5
    Ginger64.71.3
    Omum4743.93.3
    Pepper Dry3532.42.9
    Poppy Seeds3422.411.2
    Turmeric2017.62.4

     

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Fruits
    Papaya2.61.31.3
    Zizyphus3.82.81.0
    Amla7.35.81.5
    Apple3.22.30.9
    Banana1.81.10.7
    Dates, dry8.36.91.4
    Dates, fresh7.76.90.8
    Fig5.02.62.4
    Grapes, green1.20.80.4
    Guava8.57.11.4
    Jackfruit3.52.11.4
    Jambu3.52.60.9
    Tomato/Red/Green21.81.2
    Black Berries7.66.21.4
    Blue Berry3.93.50.4
    kiwi2.62.00.6
    Pazzion Fruit1.90.51.4

     

    Foods stuffTDFIDFSDF
    Fruits
    Sweetlime2.71.31.4
    Mango211
    Musk Melon0.80.50.3
    Water Melon0.60.30.3
    Orange1.10.60.5
    Peach1.61.10.5
    Pear4.340.3
    Pineapple2.82.30.5
    Plum2.81.71.1
    Pommegranate2.82.30.5
    Sapota10.99.11.8
    Custrard Apple5.541.5
    Straberry2.31.60.7
    Rasberries651