Pediatric Urology Conditions and Treatments

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Pediatric urology is a branch of medicine that addresses the urinary-tract system (includes the kidneys and bladder). These urologic conditions are often discovered in utero i.e. while the baby is still inside the mother’s womb. The conditions are common to both boys and girls. 

Common Pediatric Urology Conditions

Some of the other common pediatric urological conditions are: 

  • Antenatal hydronephrosis: A condition in which fluid accumulates in the kidney, causing its enlargement prior to birth. It can be diagnosed with the help of fetal ultrasound.
  • Bedwetting/nocturnal enuresis: This problem is commonly seen more in boys than girls. Some children may end up with daytime wetting also. Bedwetting can be associated with urinary tract and may be a sign of a UTI. 
  • Hernia: This is a protrusion of the whole or part of a tissue or organ through a weakened spot.
  • Hydrocele: An accumulation of fluid in the scrotal sac.
  • Hypospadias: This is a congenital defect, usually diagnosed during infancy. In this condition, the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip. 
  • Neurogenic bladder: This is a disorder of the nerves, resulting from interference in the normal nerve pathways that send signals to the bladder and can cause urinary incontinence
  • Spina bifida: This is a neural tube defect which causes failure of the tissues surrounding the spinal cord to close properly at the time of fetal development.
  • Undescended testes: In this condition, at least one testicle fails to descend into the scrotal sac as the male fetus develops in the mother’s womb. This condition mostly resolves on its own during the first year of life.
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction: This is a condition in which there is an obstruction in the flow of urine in the area where the ureter meets the kidney.
  • Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): This urological condition is characterized by the urine traveling backward from the bladder towards the kidneys. It is often diagnosed during prenatal ultrasound or after a UTI.
  • Tumours: Tumours of the kidney and bladder in children

Treatment for Pediatric Urology Conditions

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Pediatric urological conditions require a three-fold treatment as mentioned below:

  1. Non-invasive treatments 
  2. Minimally invasive treatments
  3. Reconstructive surgery treatments

Non-invasive treatments: Following are the methods under this aspect of treatment-

  • Biofeedback is a mind-body therapy that teaches muscle control
  • Pelvic floor training for neurogenic bladder
  • Medications and nutritional counseling
  • Ultrasound imaging for diagnosis of fetal urology conditions

Minimally invasive treatments: With the advent of robotic surgery in treating pediatric urological conditions, smaller incisions and less complications are involved. Also, the recovery time is considerably reduced, with less scarring and faster healing. Following are the minimally invasive robotic or laparoscopic procedures done to rectify various pediatric urological problems-

  • Bladder augmentation and Mitrofanoff procedure to treat neurogenic bladder
  • Pyeloplasty to rectify ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction
  • Ureteral reimplantation to treat vesicoureteral reflux

Reconstructive surgery treatments: These surgeries are mostly employed to treat conditions such as bladder exstrophy, neurogenic bladder, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Some of the pediatric urological conditions and their corresponding surgical interventions are as follows-

  • Bladder outlet surgery (bladder neck reconstruction and sling placement), urinary diversion or stoma surgery to treat neurogenic bladder
  • Complete primary repair to rectify bladder exstrophy
  • Genital reconstruction for proper function in case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
  • Hypospadias repair to achieve proper urinary stream

Although pediatric urology conditions may be diverse in nature, with proper diagnosis and treatment, they can be rectified timely. Early intervention helps to resolve these conditions so that your child can lead a healthy and disease-free life. 

NU Hospitals is the best pediatric urology hospital located in Bangalore, India. At NU hospitals, children receive comprehensive and personalized treatments for different types of urological ailments. The doctors here work with dedication to treat children with the best possible care. This makes NU Hospitals the best pediatric urology hospital in Bangalore.


  1. Did You Know? Pediatric Urology 101. Urology Care Foundation. Accessed on 27 September 2023.
  2. Pediatric Urology. Children’s Hospital Los Angeles. Accessed on 27 September 2023.
  3. Pediatric Urology. Yale Medicine. Accessed on 27 September 2023.
  4. Pediatric Urology Conditions. UCLA Health. Accessed on 27 September 2023.
  5. Urology. Mayo Clinic. Accessed on 27 September 2023.



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